Mathematical modelling is an essential tool in present-day ecological research. Yet for many ecologists it is still problematic to apply modelling in their research. In our experience, the major problem is at the conceptual level: proper understanding of what a model is, how ecological relations can be translated consistently into mathematical equations, how models are solved, steady states calculated and interpreted. Many textbooks jump over these conceptual hurdles to dive into detailed formulations or the mathematics of solution. This book attempts to fill that gap. It introduces essential concepts for mathematical modelling, explains the mathematics behind the methods, and helps readers to implement models and obtain hands-on experience. Throughout the book, emphasis is laid on how to translate ecological questions into interpretable models in a practical way.
The book aims to be an introductory textbook at the undergraduate-graduate level, but will also be useful to seduce experienced ecologists into the world of modelling. The range of ecological models treated is wide, from Lotka-Volterra type of principle-seeking models to environmental or ecosystem models, and including matrix models, lattice models and sequential decision models. All chapters contain a concise introduction into the theory, worked-out examples and exercises. All examples are implemented in the open-source package R, thus taking away problems of software availability for use of the book. All code used in the book is available on a dedicated website.
Critical thinking and healthy skepticism are not usually something that comes naturally to people. It's something that has to be learned. Without the ability to recognize argumentative fallacies, invalid arguments, and incorrect thinking, one easily becomes prey to all kinds of superstitions and quackery, sometimes to one's detriment. This book is a collection of short essays dealing with diverse subjects on this field, pertaining to skepticism, religion and quackery.
Thailand is home to over 350 species of reptiles, consisting of many kinds of turtles and tortoises, lizards, snakes and crocodiles. With its extensive network of protected areas, Thailand is one of the richest and most ecologically diverse countries in the world. However, many of these species are being threatened more than ever before, including habitat loss caused by agricultural expansion and intensification, and from wildlife trade. For herpetologists and naturalists, understanding the reptiles of Thailand is now more important than ever before.
The Baha'i community is composed of people from all backgrounds and life circumstances - educated and uneducated, professional and non-professional, healthy and unwell, mentally sound and mentally ill; moral, obedient and edified. Some have lost every material thing they have ever owned; some have every material thing they need. All are called to a higher purpose than their own individual development: to achieve oneness and unity within this diverse community. Phyllis K. Peterson uses true stories to explain how the Baha'i community is learning to develop true intimacy and unity through devotional meetings, reflection meetings and home visits and how it is learning to integrate not only the races but those who are outcast because of mental illness or physical disability."
Table of Contents Introduction Structure of the business plan Company and financing Company overview Strategic and market analysis Industry analysis Competition Pricing Marketing plan Financial projections How to Create a Profit and Loss Statement Executive Summary Conclusion The whole business plan Author Bio Introduction If you have bought this short book, you are probably thinking about starting your own business. We live in the 21st century and we have more business opportunities now than ever before. Today, it is possible to start a global online business and to manage companies that are thousands of miles away from home. The technology has made our lives much easier. The reason you are reading this book is probably not because you don't have the idea, but because you need to create a business plan and convince investors that what you plan to do is profitable. Before you continue reading this book, I want to tell you that there is nothing to be afraid of. Yes, writing a business plan is a bit difficult and complicated, as you need to pay attention to details, but yes, you can write it! In this short guide, we will go step by step through everything you need to know in order to write a business plan. Also, I am going to create a fictitious company and create a business plan for it. That way you can see how a complete business plan is written step by step. Before we start, you need to know that when you are writing the business plan, you should not only think as yourself, but as the owner, as well. Remember, the goal is not to convince you. The goal is to convince the investors. So you need to put yourself in the position of the investor and make sure that what you have written is done really, really well. The key to writing a good business plan is not only to have all the sections written such as Marketing plan, financial projection, and so on, but also to have answered all the questions that the investor might have for the project you're presenting. Always keep this in mind. I will remind you of this many times during this book as I am going to write the potential questions with italic font. This was a short introduction to what to expect in this book. Now, let's get started!
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